A bunch of Walter Lantz cartoons in the mid-1940s used an outline effect to indicate movement. Here’s one from “The Dippy Diplomat,” a 1945 ahort directed by Shamus Culhane. These are consecutive frames.
During this part of the footage, Culhane alternates outline drawings on one frame with fully-rendered characters in the next.
Grim Natwick and Pat Matthews get the animation credits in this one.